Currently, the United States is not conducive to the argument being trumpeted further development of China’s scientific and technological innovation, adopt various means to obstruct the light and dark, to curb the development of a new generation of information and communication in high-tech fields, such as nuclear energy, and trying to exchange scientific and technical personnel from the strict control, restrictions science and technology enterprise cooperation to promote the comprehensive decoupling of Sino-US science and technology. China is facing severe “second largest country trap” challenge. June 2019, a US-based non-profit organization MForesight publicly released “reinventing leadership of the United States advanced manufacturing” report (hereinafter referred to as the report), based on the results of interviews with experts in the US manufacturing community, highlighting the United States fundamental weaknesses that currently exist in manufacturing, as well as weaknesses arising from these risks may affect the long-term point of American prosperity and security. Contents of the report consists of four chapters, starting with the state of the US manufacturing sector, discusses the US innovation ecosystem gaps exist, Analysis of several key emerging technology industries, then proposed National Manufacturing initiative to reshape the US innovation ecosystem . With this report, you can Glimpse of some experts and scholars active in the manufacturing sector of the American mentality and ideas, to understand the US government targeted measures that might be taken in the manufacturing sector, plan ahead and take preventive measures. The basic process of reshaping the logical framework of the status of US manufacturing report advocates propose a solution: the theoretical analysis erection problems target, make policy recommendations for the legislation targets, select specific areas to promote the recommendations landing. The report attempts to compare the US manufacturing sector and the competitive advantages of each country’s competitive manufacturing sectors in the innovation chain and industrial chain, reveal the reasons for the outflow of US manufacturing, constructs the theoretical basis for follow-up suggestions and ideas advocated. When the first theoretical analysis, but also the face of international competition in the industry is relatively unfavorable situation, the United States has been the practice. The 1970s and eighties CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , at a disadvantage when competing with Japan and other industrial countries of the integrated circuit, the response is to the United States from the beginning to the industry economists to form new ideas, new understanding, and then back to the industry and academia form a cluster effect , to petition the government, by politicians finally take specific measures, gradually reversing the unfavorable situation. Among them, Paul Krugman, Laura Tyson, John Zisman and other US economists in the 1980s has published books,The rise of “strategic trade theory” in the United States, for the development of high-tech industry in the role of government debate had a significant impact CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , for a particular technical field for more government support initiatives provided support. Foreign technology will not only have the competitive landscape of the industry pose a threat to the United States, will form the harm to US national security, this concept also formed in the mid-80s of the last century. The report constructs the theory is the presence of gaps in the US innovation ecosystem, largely to the exodus of American manufacturing. The report will evolve into innovation and innovation chain ring, from basic research, transforming R & D, product innovation, process innovation requires financial support of four stages of convergence since found all aspects of the invention, concept prototyping, pilot production and manufacturing innovation. In each of the key stages, namely the United States pointed out the existing problems, such as: (1) basic research, especially in science and engineering research, graduate too dependent on Asia, especially China graduate; cooperation with foreign institutions of American University (2) are encouraged excessive, so that foreign participants can obtain the research results and apply them to the production of the country; concept prototype (3) laboratory validation lack of funds, so that foreign companies can take advantage of, access to good prospects for technology priority permission ; (4) large-scale production needs huge capital investment, and the need for comprehensive supply chain basis, the United States does not now have.
Figure 1: US innovation cycle (Source: US MForesight report)
summary of these four factors, the report pointed out that the US manufacturing sector from the “wall flower wall incense” to “wall flower wall incense” the crux is that the US government funds to support the vast majority are limited to enhance the maturity of the technology, rather than improve manufacturing maturity. Based on the results of theoretical analysis, the report proposes to reverse the US manufacturing competitive disadvantage initiative is to provide more targeted, more massive government funding. For example, for the United States to provide engineering graduate grants and scholarships; funding for the conversion of R & D; to commercial scale production start-ups of US investment; government procurement contracts to provide manufacturers of the United States application of new technologies and new products. In comparison with government financial support of Germany, Japan, South Korea, the three competing countries, the report suggested that the US government should focus on a substantial increase in financial support for R & D in the manufacturing sector and small and medium manufacturers of these two aspects.The report is based on technology and industry trends, the electric vehicle battery to key industries, the autonomous vehicle sensing and control, flexible electronics and semiconductor packaging four cases to analyze. In the analysis, pointed out that both the United States representative startups, once again reiterated suggestions faces competition from national funds to invest patent portfolio to pressure and other aspects of the production capacity, the theoretical analysis reports provide additional evidence for the report provide facilities strategy object. Expansion – “In order to secure a national wealth and strategic courage manufacturing prosperity,” the report demands the US report analyzing the report is not an isolated report, in fact, publisher MForesight in June 2018 released Version. 2019 report analyzes the logic and content main claim followed the 2018 report. Publisher noted that research and publish an expanded version of the report because the 2018 report generated a huge response and discussion in the United States, return to the US to promote the manufacturing process. MForesight is a non-profit organization to rely on experts to provide rapid response report on manufacturing trends and opportunities and critical intelligence for policy-makers, business leaders and researchers. It is worth noting that the agency’s main donors are the US National Institute of Standards and Technology directly under the US Department of Commerce. MForesight since its inception in October 2015, is active in all aspects of the US manufacturing sector, participated in the federal government’s “Made in America” (Manufacturing USA, formerly the National Manufacturing Innovation Network NNMI) program and the “expansion of manufacturing partners.” plan. Therefore, the proposed opportunities and challenges surrounding the manufacturing industry is the core of the agency’s report. For the development of the US manufacturing sector continued to rally, the establishment of the agency and the existence of values and mission lies. Seventies and eighties the United States and Japan around the fierce competition among integrated circuit on a path with the introduction of the last century is different is that this US politicians to pressure China formed a high degree of consensus CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright and the lack of industry and economic circles worldwide response. MForesight can be considered when trying to play the role of Paul Krugman and other economists put forward the theoretical basis for politicians to limit the introduction of measures to win the support of industry and academia, providing nominally “independent” and “from the experts” strong views . United StatesMinister of Commerce Wilbur Ross in export control and security, the annual meeting of the Ministry of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security July 9, 2019 on around export controls made a speech, which referred to the private sector must assume the responsibility to protect has technical affect national security, and pointed out that no matter how lucrative overseas markets, American companies to enter the market and trading business secrets, sensitive intellectual property and source code are wrong. While stressing , to prevent the transfer of intellectual property rights and foreign strategic investment in the United States advanced technology. The report from the perspective of theoretical analysis and case echoes the idea of Ross, but the angle initiatives is to require the government to provide more financial support. However, with the US Department of Commerce aimed at China, Russia and other countries the difference is that the report was not conclusive data analysis support from the “China threat theory”, but Lenovo induce the reader by way of obfuscation. For example, collecting to the China-related R & D institutions, enterprises and related relayed normally be highlighted in the report; there is no specific Chinese example related, through Japan, South Korea and data analysis to Asia refer; Asia is no data, Germany and other data through a competitive foreign country or refer to. Through this approach, it is easy for readers to have a “wall flower wall incense,” the biggest benefit of the United States, manufacturing is China’s impression. Own flawed analysis framework of the report. Throughout the report only discusses the case of innovation chains and industrial chain, while ignoring the analysis of the value chain, that is related to key areas of the value chain national distribution acquired intentional or unintentional neglect. By analyzing the value chain, more comprehensive, more objective to see in the global division of labor and the current competitive landscape of the industry, whether it is which country to grab more benefits. In addition, the report in order to highlight the severity of the US manufacturing sector, selectively or intentionally distorting the facts discussed. For example, the report describes the unilateral foreign capital and companies to participate in the US industrial research and development, not to mention the fact that US funds and foreign companies involved in research and development of industrial and get huge benefits. US Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security technology export control forward and cutting-edge technology foundation for extending our inspiration. November 19, 2018, the council announced key technologies and products export control framework program for public consultation draft of a list of 14 technology fields of biotechnology, artificial intelligence and machine learning technology. The report analyzes the electric car battery, autoSensing and control drive of the vehicle, yet flexible electronics and semiconductor package 14 in a breakdown in the art. Thus, the US high-tech fields with R & D and infrastructure advantages are a significant number of front-end. Exports to the US to further expand the scope of control and extension of the scientific community and industry such as the need for anticipation and preparation. The report revealing the current concerns in the United States for manufacturing and hope for the future, the United States is based on a huge investment in technology research and development, as well as a strong force on the basis of research and innovation policy sources. Although the report presents disrupt the global supply chain, industrial chain and innovation ecosystem of ideas, but also shows the ability of the United States and attempts to jam the source of supply of scientific and technological innovation. This suggests that the development of our country in a new round of technological innovation, we must increase support for basic research and basic research applications, it is important to strengthen the system of capacity-building in science and technology innovation. Meanwhile, in the key emerging areas of national consensus, in reality not fully against the US science and technology innovation system, we must find the key to the emerging field of research and development and industrial layout can force to get exclusive advantages of an asymmetric checks and balances to protect the development of related industries in China. Finally, the report and the report by the US think tank the other held the same views on intelligent manufacturing “intelligent manufacturing guide for policy makers” such as the US Information Technology and Innovation Foundation on November 30, 2016 released a report, pointed out that the development of Intelligent Manufacturing It will make a substantial decline in the proportion of the labor factor in the cost of production in the manufacturing sector is on the border of the cost more easily rooted to the higher labor cost regions. Intelligent Manufacturing reduces the effective minimum scale of production, making the production site close to the customer base to become economically viable, and the ability to produce customized consumer customer base means that the need for production in high-income countries. Faced with this trend, our country needs to unswervingly implement the “Made in China 2025” to increase intelligent manufacturing technology development and application of key inputs, integrated use of various policy instruments to encourage the transformation of intelligent manufacturing small and medium enterprises, and to cultivate an international perspective intelligent manufacturing team of technical personnel of technological innovation capability.