a new round of industrial revolution sweeping the globe, Germany proposed the “Industry 4.0”, the United States proposed the “Internet industry”, China put forward the “Made in China 2025”, although the wording is different, but essentially no difference. 4.0 to industry as the mainstay of global economic reforms. Carefully observe the process of the fourth industrial revolution, we find that the Industrial Revolution in the industry has accumulated over the past 200 years, the United States, Japan, Germany and other industrial powers have formed a very distinct characteristics: Germany: by equipment and production systems continue to upgrade, will solidify the knowledge on equipment from Germany advanced equipment and automated production line is world-famous, it can be said to have qualified on the strength of chasing the equipment manufacturing industry. Because of excellent product quality and reliability, so that Germany has a very good brand reputation. German manufacturing strengths is good at a variety of innovative integrated into various parts, devices and equipment up. Germany by escalating equipment and production systems, will solidify the knowledge on the device. The Germans have a deep-rooted concept, err is human, there will be errors, especially in the production processes, the negative impact of the introduction of these people go through every aspect of progressively larger pipeline, will inevitably affect the quality of the final product. Thus, the entire production process, the more the human factor, the greater the possibility of the final product problems. Therefore, the German improve the quality of the idea is very direct, is in production processes to use all possible means to reduce the impact of natural person to a minimum, make sure everything is broken down into a machine (or like machines actions) can simply perform.
“Made in Germany” has been able so far focused, and always maintain the leading position in the era of globalization, the German manufacturing sector mainly due to technological innovation, guarantee the establishment of a standardized system. From the scientific and technological innovation in terms of: Germany successive governments attached great importance to scientific research and innovation achievements manufacturing transformation, efforts to establish a research and development, the transformation, the dissemination of knowledge and manpower training as one of the research and innovation system. German companies on generous R & D investment, R & D expenditures accounted for about 3% of GDP, the highest in the world. From the standardization and quality certification system is concerned: Germany for a long time to implement stringent industry standards and quality certification system, to establish a leading position in the world has made important contributions to the German manufacturing. In addition to the production site in Germany to pursue the issue resolved automatically, in business management andBusiness also able to see their efforts to try to reduce man-made factors. In addition, the “apprenticeship” and consistent intellectual rigor of German national identity embodied in the German manufacturing sector is particularly evident. Germany is a welfare society, the German industrial structure, salary structure determines the front-line engineers, workers could be persuaded to adhere to honestly engage in engineering and technology. However, lack of data collection in Germany accumulation, lack of quality predictive analysis equipment pre-diagnosis and health management (PHM) and virtual measurement. Thus, German industry 4.0 proposed plan, a core element of the framework is the “integration”, including vertical integration, horizontal integration and end to end integration. So fourth industrial revolution in Germany, the main purpose is to use the knowledge to further enhance the competitiveness of its industrial exports, and have a direct economic returns. In short, the German Industry 4.0 strategy is turning to sales of smart services. The knowledge available to customers in the form of software or toolkit.
▲ Germany’s manufacturing philosophy
Japan: continuous improvement through training organizational culture and people, on the knowledge of bearing and heritage are very dependent artisan spirit of people in Japan, the post of human spirit, in Japan’s lifetime employment system, Japanese lean production manufacturing, 6S management, Inamori Kazuo made in Japan, Matsushita and other business of the holy, these cultural factors are affecting the stability of Japanese manufacturing business, continuing operations. When the Japanese company internal training, “corporate culture”, “three organizations” and “brain training” is repeatedly emphasized. The most typical manifestation is proposed by Japan in the 1970s to “the entire production system maintenance (TPM)” as the core of production management systems. The core idea can be “three-wide” to summarize: full efficiency, system-wide and full participation, as well as Japan’s “culture of employee tenure” will be closely linked with the fate of employees of enterprises, making the experience and knowledge can in-house accumulation, use and heritage.
among Japanese companies as well as a unique “corporate pyramid echelon” culture, that is a huge enterprise (usually the most downstream industry chain, directly to end customers), such as Toyota, Mitsubishi and other core, forming a complete industrial enterprise cluster in the chain, maintain long-term cooperation between enterprises, and help each other to improve and enhance each other. This ensures continuous knowledge accumulation, distribution and transmission in a larger system. Japanese manufacturers have been able to go from the bubble to help JapanMo carry over in the process, and help each other between the Japanese companies and mutual assistance relationship strong links inseparable, inseparable from business groups tied mode Nippon Foundation.
Thus, for Japanese companies, employees are the most important value, trust in others far better than trust in the equipment, data and systems, all the automation or information technology are also helping people around to work for the purpose, so Japanese companies never talks substitutions or unmanned machine factory. If the Chinese want to learn artisan spirit, the most should learn from the Japanese bred craftsmen organizational culture and systems. Technology destiny Japanese manufacturing strategy is a powerful factor. Since the 1960s, Japan began from “trading nation” to “technology nation”, from an emphasis on applied research, and gradually turned to focus on basic research, the Government from policy, planning, fiscal and financial aspects, the development of applied technology, basic research, especially for high-tech strong guidance and support. In technology research and development, Japan has three indicators ranked first in the world: research and development expenditure to GDP ratio out in the world; the second is the proportion of business-led R & D expenditures total R & D expenditures in the world; the third is Japan’s core the world’s first patented technology accounting for more than 80%.
But such cultural issues in recent years faced a huge challenge is the aging of Japan’s manufacturing industry and a lot of the younger generation shortage, so that no one can go to pass that knowledge. It can be said that Japan’s transformation strategy to deal with its demographic problems and social conflicts upset, the core is to solve the people’s alternative to knowledge acquisition and transmission mode. Japan in the transition process is also faced with many challenges, first of all is the lack of data accumulated, making the lack of knowledge and experience and judgment based on criteria in the transfer process. Second is the lack of industrial enterprises in Japan caused by the conservative culture of software and IT technical personnel. And compared to European and American companies, Japanese companies are not good at one fusion software, hardware, content, applications, and software content do not pay attention, which led to its transformation in the transition to intelligent and networked in a comprehensive behind. United States: obtained from the data and immigrants in the new knowledge, and good at subversion and redefine the problems in the US rely on data to acquire new knowledge, the most emphasis on data in problem-solving approach in action, whether the customer needs analysis, customer relationship management , the production process quality management, supply chain management, are relying on a lot of data. Therefore, the United States produced a lot of advanced manufacturing softParts and networks. Compared with Japan and Germany, America’s focus on the role of data in a problem-solving approach, whether the customer needs analysis, health service management customer relationship management, quality management, production process, equipment, supply chain management, product aspects of management and service are a large number rely on data. This also resulted in the 1990s, the United States and Japan have chosen two different manufacturing systems to improve the way US companies generally choose the 6-sigma system is very dependent on the data, while Japan chose the very people and institutions rely on lean management systems. USA Keywords in intelligent manufacturing revolution is still a “subversion”, which is its new strategic layout can be clearly seen, the use of the Internet to subvert the value system of industrial manufacturing, the use of digital technology, new materials and new production methods (3D printing) to subvert manufacturing production. However, since 2000, US manufacturing employment overall downward trend, is facing a serious shortage of labor supply problem. There are many elements of the development of the manufacturing sector, but in the end, that men ought to do it. The problem is the American model of technological evolution will inactivate the cornerstone of innovation if it is data, then the person for innovative interventions will become less CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , and the key to innovation lies in people. Chinese manufacturing rely on it? May 8, 2015, the State Council issued the “Made in China 2025”, which is the Chinese version of “Industry 4.0” plan. Plans to enter the ranks of manufacturing power in ten years, as “Made in China 2025” the beginning of the first sentence: “Manufacturing is the main body of the national economy, is the foundation of a nation, rejuvenation of the device, the power base.” “Made in China 2025 “the basic idea of strategy has two main aspects. First, plans to focus on the formation of about 15 manufacturing innovation center in 2020, 2025 and strive to form about 40 manufacturing innovation center. Second, efforts to develop intelligent equipment and intelligent products , to promote intelligent production processes, cultivate a new mode of production, enhance research and development, production, management and service level of intelligence. In recent years, Control Engineering Copyright , China innovation more and more attention of the global community. 30 years ago, China cultivated Haier, Changhong, ShenyangMachine tools and other large number of internationally competitive industry leader. Today, the integration of a variety of micro-channel function of socializing, shopping, banking, travel, payment and so has become the world’s leading social tool, Huawei has a strong 5G technology is also leading the global market, China has become China’s high-speed rail business card …… these huge achievement so that “China innovation” has become the focus of international attention. President of the Chinese Academy of Science and Technology Development HU Zhi-jian think China is still in the overall innovation among progressive process of catching up, with the run, and run, lead co-exist, in the lead state in a few areas. The historical experience of Germany, the United States, Japan and other countries shows that, from imitation to innovation is the introduction of a national scientific and technological innovation capability upgrade, and go through the process of catching up, is hard to match. In this process, China’s development and innovation in manufacturing still faces many important challenges. Looking to the future CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , move from a big manufacturing power, upward climb in the global value chain, new opportunities and new challenges Control Engineering Copyright , in time theological virtues United States and Japan is not impossible, still need to continue to work hard!