If the Germany, the United States, Japan, these countries as one company, the times of the Industrial Revolution as an important node in the history of the company, the entrepreneur’s perspective to study industrial development 4.0, analyze why it happened these industrial revolution in these countries but not in other countries? Seek out one of the law, perhaps with good value for the transition inspiration plight of Chinese enterprises we are in. After more in-depth study of the history of industrial development in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, Japan and other countries, I found this a few times in the industrial revolution did have a very clear the main line, now sorted out, I hope to give more Chinese manufacturing companies bring some inspiration.
Why is the first industrial revolution in Britain? Recently, the British “off Europe” in the world have created a hubbub. Britain, the former “empire the sun never sets”, has been reduced to second-rate country, can only rely on today, “one off fame”, before finally occupied the headlines again, looking back past glory, can not help but sigh. “Reviewing the past eventful years thick,” the British in the history that’s a resounding role in the heyday of the British Empire, a quarter of the global population are the people of the British Empire, the territory accounted for 30 million square kilometers, accounting for the global 1 / 5 CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , the industrial output value accounted for 51% of the world, Britain was the world’s most powerful nation. Why Britain can achieve so much success? Is a big area of the country? Yes population? In fact, is not in the UK did not rise at the beginning, is a purely feudal agricultural country, with a population of only 5.5 million, of which 4.1 million live in rural areas , land area of only 240,000 square kilometers, only half of France, but also smaller than in Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Poland, the European area, or even less than two percent of China’s (the largest land area of 1,300 Qing Dynasty million square kilometers), not to mention Russia, the United States and other large countries, look around, living in the UK is a weak person among the great powers, but why such a small island, actually become “the sun never sets Empire”? the answer very clear, that is the first industrial revolution, industrial revolution in human history. So, the question again, why the industrial revolution occurred before the British than other countries? The answer to this question, we look at what the Industrial Revolution start and mark events?
We can see from the industrial division of 4.0 out of first industrial revolution is based on the spinning jenny in 1764 weaver James Hargreaves invention as a starting point to the instrument repairman James Watt improved the steam engine as a symbol, brought mankind into the “age of steam.” Marx once said: many inventions since 1830, our first thought is automatic spinning machine, because it opens up a new era of automatic systems. Since spinning machine so important that we look at is what people have contributed to this historic invention. 1733, clockmaker John Kay invention Shuttle, greatly improves the efficiency of weaving. 1764 textile workers James Hargreaves spinning jenny invention improves spinning efficiency. In 1769, the barber Arkwright invented a hydraulic spinning machine. 1779, textile workers cloned invention Southampton automatic cotton spinning machine. In 1785, Pastor Ed Monte Cartwright invented the power loom, improve work efficiency 40-fold. 1705, a Scottish blacksmith invention 名叫纽克曼 air steam engine. 1712 Thomas Newcomen invented the first practical steam engine. In 1769, the instrument repairman James Watt steam engine were improved, thus promoting the development of the industrial revolution. It is these watchmakers, weavers, barber, priest, blacksmith, mechanic invented a spinning machine, steam engine, leading the human race into the industrial age, they are the heroes of this era, they are the people of this era. So, we continue to ask why the UK will converge so many good people? Like many Chinese companies complain every day less talent, companies can not find, unable to retain talent, we look at the UK is how to do it? United States business historian Alfred Chandler · D · that “previous studies of historical events, often have to be traced back to the incident, especially institutional change research, and nature.” before the Industrial revolution in England, Europe is called dark the Middle Ages (the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD 1500), religious conflict, ethnic wars, bubonic plague, cholera, plague rampant, loss of life, widespread poverty, as the British people naturally became the first to take refuge paradise island. At this time, the British government made a number of barriers to immigration, such as to have a skill, a certain number of apprentices to train in order to obtain the corresponding identity later. In this way, a large number of skilled personnel in continental Europe landHe continued to Britain, making Britain became the de facto “talent depression.” These watches workers, textile workers, the mechanic that was the talent, such talent is the invention of the automatic spinning machine, improved the steam engine, opened the process of human industrial civilization. Therefore, I believe the British have become the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, not by chance, Britain’s geographical location, personnel policy to make the UK a talent depression in Europe, brought together a large number of skilled personnel, provide a wealth of industrial civilization to sprout talent soil, which is an important reason. Why is the second industrial revolution will be transferred to the United States? Second industrial revolution based on 1870 Cincinnati slaughterhouse automated production as a starting point for automated production line for the Ford logo is “accompanied by the power based on the division of labor driven mass produce”. Here we explore two questions, why the British would quickly decline? Why can the rapid rise of the United States? After the study, I believe that the science of “division of labor” is one important factor. In the early Industrial Revolution, factories are not careful division of labor, business owners basically take away some of the foreman’s approach to production, so the United Kingdom, the United States is all about. Chandler said: “Until 1840, the United States has not yet appeared middle management”, “At that time almost all top managers are business owners, they are not a partner is the main shareholder.” But after 1840, there was division of labor, a “payroll manager” that is professional management to emerge, such enterprises are called the modern enterprise. “When the Second World War, these companies have become the dominant organizations in many sectors of the US economy.” (Excerpt from Chandler in the “visible hand – the American Enterprise Management Revolution”, under book money for short). Chandler after the study pointed out: “Competition among enterprises, but ultimately successful among their managers and corporate competition, a company depends largely on the quality of its management hierarchy.” At this time, the US enterprises in the division of labor, derived from a large number of professional management personnel, business management has been significantly improved, greatly enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. 1860, the United States ranks fourth in industrial production in the major capitalist countries, less than half of the UK. But by 1894, the United States has twice the UK, accounting for a third of the world’s industrial output. Especially in 1895, known as the “father of scientific management” of Frederick Taylor · W ·Published his first paper about the “scientific management” and published in 1911 the “Principles of Scientific Management,” opened a new era of enterprise management, enterprise production efficiency improved significantly. Taylor stressed that the management to scientific, standardized, and believe that “factory organization has always been the most important role, that of the workshop foreman must undo” (money taken from the book), completely subversive of management innovation. US companies reduce the foreman of this extensive management, to the road of scientific management. The British do? Unfortunately, Britain’s workshop is still “foreman” in management, because these people were limited knowledge, management is still a traditional extensive management. British capitalists face the fierce market competition, we put forward various improvement programs, but the total was suppressed by massive labor movement, forced to maintain backward mode of production and management, so the decline of Britain’s inevitable. The famous American economist William Lazo Nick “workshop competitive advantage” in his book: “a major cause of long-term decline of British Industry, the UK’s manufacturing production management companies not able to work out from the shop floor As a result, UK corporate governance structure can not be developed in a managerial capitalism to dominate the world economy. Britain’s capitalist employers give control to the production plant, did not establish the appropriate management structure in the enterprise to undermine workers’ control of production process rights and responsibilities. ” This is why the Germans “With the electric drive based on the division of labor in large-scale production,” launched as the second division flag Industrial Revolution, “division of labor” based on the US “payroll manager” appears and Taylor’s scientific management and gradually mature, is a striking American businesses an important reason. Therefore, the author summarizes an important reason why the enterprise “management revolution” the United States can stand out in the second industrial revolution. Why Japan’s outstanding performance in the third industrial revolution? In 1968, the United States Modicon birth of the first programmable logic controller (PLC), and the following year launched the “084” model PLC, opened the third Industrial revolution, to achieve manufacturing automation. CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , in addition to the United States, Germany and other major powers continue to lead, as a defeated Japan, the rapid rise in the third industrial revolution in resource-poor island, of which there are What mysteries do?Japan’s industrial rise despite the Korean market offers huge external factors, but in the process of lean production is withheld. Rely on lean production, Toyota in the case of equipment, technology far less than their US counterparts, from the time of the production efficiency is only 1/8 of the US Ford Motor Company, a few years later changed to 10 times the profits of the anti-American General Motors, the effect is amazing . Lean in the end is what? After reading a lot of Chinese people to come back and say that zero inventory, production is on time, I just said that they see the results. Americans spend millions of dollars in research Toyota production management, the final conclusion is that LEAN PRODUCTION, meaning that the process of reducing waste. I just said that Americans see the process, only to see the appearance, indeed emphasize lean manufacturing to reduce waste, improve efficiency and reduce costs. I think they said all right, but not the depth, lean production is essentially a unique corporate culture. For example it will be clear, lean production talking about the full participation, continuous improvement. This is a true to plant at home, grabbed from the field, from the start, actively seeking the optimal process. Toyota employee suggestions for improvement in the 1970s received each year more than 700,000, 82% were adopted, employee participation rate of over 65%, an average of more than two per month. We think about two per month per person rationalization proposals, a business 700 000 per year, this is how fanatical one of how wholeheartedly working conditions, there is such a thing as the companies own thing, do everything possible to make things good attitude, what reasonable solution can not think of? What kind of business can benefit bad? Therefore, I believe that Lean is not just a mode of production, but also a corporate culture is the spirit of enterprise, reduce waste to improve its production is an important means of expression only. Because of this corporate culture based on lean production, manufacture Japan was able to rise rapidly, and Japan will soon become the world’s second largest industrial power. From this perspective, to lean production as the representative of this initiative is to stimulate the ability of employees is a key Japanese stand out in the third industrial revolution. “People” will continue to be the main line of the above analysis the fourth industrial revolution, we find from these three key industry 1.0,2.0,3.0 Industrial Revolution are depression talent, talent management, human fires, this root is man-made the thread running through the core of the industry is always the first three.Now, many Chinese manufacturing industry is responding to the national call is being comprehensively promote intelligent manufacturing process, but regrettably, many enterprises to robots and other automated equipment or ERP / MES 4.0 Industrial and other information as the most important concern, author We believe that these practices are too superficial, too instrumentalization. Whether it is automation or information technology, its essence is the tool, the soul and the core business is the people. German industrial landing eight 4.0 plan, attached great importance to human values, such as repeatedly emphasized how to manage complex systems, how to ensure personal safety, how to optimize the organization and management, how to train staff to expand their skills and career development, how to develop reasonable rules and regulations, as well as how to make full use of human resources and so on, these issues to around 4.0 people-centered are important research content industry. Even the emphasis on high-tech America, GE Industrial Internet will be defined as three key elements of “smart machines, advanced analytics, staff”, who is also one of the important elements. GE CEO Jack Welch, former chairman and chief had said:. ” ‘People’ in companies seeking success through the success plays a decisive role.”
In China’s national strategy – “Made in China 2025” is more focus on the “people-oriented” basic principle “adhere to the talent as a fundamental building manufacturing power, establish a sound scientific and rational selection, employment, education mechanism to accelerate the training of manufacturing industry in urgent need of professional and technical personnel, management personnel, skills talent. “and proposed manufacturing personnel training programs, excellent engineer training programs to improve the modern management level and other specific initiatives.
It is based on this idea, the author two years ago proposed “CPPS human-computer network three yuan strategy”, CPPS is a Cyber-Person-Physical System abbreviation, Person refers to the workers and their skills, literacy, spirit , organization and management. CPPS reflects the people-oriented, integration of people with SEB, the actual situation two physical world, iterative development, building a human network strategy to three yuan cyber intelligence purposes. It was under the guidance of the strategic thinking, innovative R & D facilities blue light things / MES products are people-centered, through intelligent device management, program scheduling, human-machine collaboration, quality control and other technical means to help enterprises maximize the value of people CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright realize the core value of intelligent “human use” of. These systems are in the military, and many enterprises have been very good application. With the rapid development of automation, digital, networked, intelligent, intelligent manufacturing has become an important means for business transformation and upgrading, the process, the requirements of people to increasingly high, we can not be like before mass production, implement simple management employees, but should be written in the “principles of scientific management,” in like Taylor: “workers and managers both the most important goal is to explore business training and skills of everyone, so that everyone can do their best talent the best, the fastest, with a maximum flow for the highest productivity in the work of his rank. “through training, training CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , so that greatly enhance their skills, to meet the needs of all levels of work. 4.0 In the process of industrial development, in addition to a large number of high-skill, high sense of responsibility of blue-collar workers, it also requires more and more highly qualified “knowledge workers” ( “knowledge workers” is the management guru Peter Drucker in concept in 1959, “the future has already happened,” first proposed), these knowledge workers will be the core strength of research and development, production, marketing, management, but how to manage these people, we can not rely on traditional hierarchical management, but should allow them to play a greater intrinsic motivation to achieve a self-organizing, self-motivation of management, so that they sublimated by the general staff as a creative ability, passionate “creative elite.” “Man” is the company’s core competencies Google head Eric Schmidt in “Redefining Company: Google is how to operate,” a book wrote: “Those ambitious and willing (and ability) to use technology to challenge the more likely people are creative elite. creative elite is extremely difficult to manage a group, especially in older management system because no matter how much effort you are unable to command these people think. If you can not manage the creative elite of ideas, we must learn to manage them to think about the environment, so they are happy to place in them. “in the industrial process 4.0, the realization of intelligent technology is very difficult, but good management, good corporate use of various talents especially a growing number of 80, 90, is a more difficult task. Robots and other advanced equipment isYou can buy come, but as the core competitiveness of enterprises and talent management business, money can not buy, nor is it an easy thing, that companies need to invest a lot of energy and financial resources accumulated precipitation process CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , and this is precisely China’s manufacturing industry 4.0 journey biggest challenge it. Through the above analysis, we hope to make you understand, at 4.0 development industry, we are not only concerned with robot and 5-axis CNC machine tools, will move the AGV, and those AI, blown to heaven information technology, to the rational use of these advanced hardware and software system based on the macroeconomic downturn, we should be the eyes inward, get down to people-oriented, give full play to human values, with less investment to stimulate the greatest creativity and competitiveness of enterprises to achieve successful transformation of enterprises upgrade, which is the author’s point of view in recent years have been calling, hoping to attract more manufacturers attention. Otherwise, ignore this, industrial zero points are zero.