Block chain of trust may be a mechanism to ensure things provide credibility, reliability and transparency ownership records, the transaction can be provided things like landing scenario “decentralized”
chain as a block to block chain technique collaboration, distributed data storage, transmission point, the consensus mechanism, encryption algorithms and smart technologies such contracts in the field of integrated network trust management in recent years has become a hot concern of many governments, enterprises and research institutions, emerging technologies and standards organizations , the industry also have to increase investment, to seek relevant technical solution landing. At present, the block chain technology has been applied to things, smart city, smart manufacturing, supply chain management, digital asset transactions, trusted cloud computing, network identity management and many other areas of the real economy and the gradual integration of depth, boost real economy Upgrade. Industry forecasts, networking, application integration technology block chain and artificial intelligence will trigger a new round of technological innovation and industrial change. China’s “” Thirteen Five “national information planning” in the block chain as a focus on cutting-edge technology, clearly innovative, testing and application of new technologies related to the need to strengthen, and strive to seize the initiative, to master the new generation of information technology initiative . What is the block chain? In recent years, networking and network business has developed rapidly. As more and more objects (objects of the physical world and the virtual world of matter) access needs, based on the center of the existing trust management of the network and the Internet of Things business platform will face more and more challenges. Authorities predict that by 2020 the number was connected to more than 50 billion in 2025 was more than 100 billion connections possible. Everything will reshape the existing network interconnection and service platforms. At the same time, the Internet will make all things existing network and service platform facing enormous challenges, including: △ scalability: Things carrying ten billion devices connected services, networking and network service platform requires a new type of system expansion program; △ inter-network collaboration: the need to build a new collaborative relationship between operators to meet the massive things device access; △ security and privacy protection: the lack of security measures for communications and data networking equipment was massive, and privacy protection measures; △ trust mechanism: the lack of credible mechanisms for data connected with the mass of things to solve complex environmental equipment under the; △Communication Collaboration: the lack of compatibility and coordination mechanism for communication between networked devices massive object. Recently, with the standard 5G freezes countries speed up the release of spectrum, 5G commercial process is rapidly advancing. 5G network will provide at least ten times the rate and mass 4G network connection to the network, while the network latency can be reduced to 1 millisecond, and the introduction of virtualization, cloud, intelligence technology, the network will become more flexible and agile. This will directly contribute to the digital transformation of all walks of life, used in the field of things, including, as things provide a solid connection service and network infrastructure. Block chain is the core technology of distributed computing, distributed computing and credible mechanism for coordination group under the environment. Distributed computing technology and trusted community block chain coordination mechanism, providing new ideas and solutions to solve things facing scalability, collaboration, trust challenges in relation to security protection. The nature of the technical characteristics of block chain block chain is a distributed digital books, it relies on a series of encryption algorithms, storage technology, is built on the peer network; peer access to it, and can not be altered to ensure that credible manner integrity of transactions recorded can not be tampered with and authenticity. Block block is defined as a chain of a certain trust mechanism, executable set of data read or write operation, confirming the block storage block chain of transactions, contracts, storage, replication, security and other related information . Key features include block chain “can not be altered”, “consensus mechanism” and “decentralized.” Wherein the block chain “non-tampering” feature is designed to ensure the stability and reliability of the data, reducing the risk of data tampering. “Consensus mechanism” block chain features on the assumption that most of the block chain participants are credible premise, co-verification process by the majority of parties involved to reach a consensus and achieve authenticity verification block chain transactions; this feature can based in large part to prevent defaults block chain applications occur. Intelligent contract as one kind of implementation of the consensus agreement, the agreement can provide automatic interaction capability consensus mechanisms. “Decentralized” feature is a natural consequence of block chain of distributed computing, distributed computing is the way of collective sharing, data maintenance system, system participants each node can according to their needs directly within the purview access to information without the need for intermediate transfer platform.Speaking from the application form, the block chain can be divided into public chain, chain alliance and private chains. Different types of block chain suitable for different application scenarios. Public chain is a completely open block chain, all its participants can enter the system at any time to read the data, and sends the transaction confirmation, competition and billing system maintenance work. Typical applications include public Bitcoin chain, ether Fong. Union chain refers to a number of agencies involved in managing the block chain, block chain belonging to the hybrid chain of between public and private-chain class; wherein each operating mechanism and manages one or more nodes on the chain that data is only allowed to read and write within the Union agencies, inter-agency can send the transaction, and work together to record transaction data. Typical applications include chain Super League books, business Ethernet Fong. Private chain refers to block write access to its chain controlled by an organization or institution that read permission can open or add a certain extent. As a lack of mutual trust in the competitive environment of low cost to complete the transaction credible new computing paradigm or cooperative mode, block chain with its unique trust settlement mechanism, operating rules are changing many industries, the future development of the digital economy the key technology to build a new trust system indispensable. Industry within the global scope of the block chain, block chain has been recognized by many countries, companies and research institutions, and gradually extended to other areas. In China, the block chain is to get attention, a national active layout, all walks of life to actively explore and seek to apply hot landing. 2016, the State Council issued “” Thirteen Five “national information planning”, highlighting the importance of developing new techniques and block chain of big data and artificial intelligence. 2017, the Ministry issued the “China block chain technology and application development White Paper”, the world’s first official block chain landing guidance document. People’s Bank of China issued the “China’s financial industry information technology” Thirteen Five “development planning”, also clearly put forward to actively promote the application of new technology block chain, artificial intelligence and other requirements. June 2018 Control Engineering Copyright , the Ministry issued the “industrial development of the Internet Action Plan (2018-2020)” to encourage advancing edge computing, emerging before the depth of learning, the block chainApplication of technology in the industry along the Internet. January 2019 Control Engineering Copyright , the National Internet Information Office issued “block chain information service regulations,” a clear responsibility for information security management block chain information service providers, regulate and promote the block chain technology and related services and healthy development of information services to circumvent the block chain security risks, provide effective legal basis for the block chain information services, use, management and so on. Until the end of May 2019, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Hebei (male security), Jiangsu, Shandong, Guizhou, Gansu, Hainan and other provinces or regions issued the block chain policies and guidance, several provinces in the development and application of block chain technology included in the local “thirteen five” strategic development plan, and actively carry out the distribution chain block chain. Among these, especially in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong introduced policies most frequently. Currently, a lot of industry, academia, research organization or entity being the block chain technology and cloud computing, big data and artificial intelligence, depth of integration of cutting-edge technology, integrated innovation, to explore commercial applications for businesses, continue to build a diversified variety of technical field of the fine professional block chain. Block chain “off the virtual to reality” trend is clearly, ecological industry has initially formed, is boosting the real economy in many fields of high-quality development. As a general block chain technology, is accelerating penetration to the human production, all areas of life, innovation and integration of all walks of life. According to international research firm predicts that by 2020 the global block chain market will reach 13.96 billion US dollars (about 98.623 billion yuan), between 2017 – 2022 CAGR block chain will be as high as 42.8%. With the development of national policy to guide countries block chain industry will usher in a broader space for development. Things block chain with a fusion of things in recent years, development has become the size, but there are still many challenges to be overcome in the development of long-term evolution. In terms of security equipment, the lack of mechanisms for mutual trust between the device and the device, all devices and data needed to perform verification center of things, once the collapse of the database, the whole things will cause great damage. In terms of privacy, centralized management structure can not be a witness innocence, hidden personalHave occurred when data was leaked private events. In terms of scalability, the current data flow of things are aggregated into a single central control system in the future things will show a geometric growth equipment, the center can not afford the cost of services, networking and network service platform requires a new type of system expansion Program. In terms of communications and collaboration, global networking platform was the lack of uniform technical standards, interface that allows multiple devices communicate things hampered each other, and generate a plurality of competing standards and platforms. In the inter-network collaboration, at present, a lot of things are operators, within the enterprise self-organizing network. When it comes to collaboration between principals across multiple carriers, multiple peers, establish credit is costly. Block chain with “can not be altered”, “consensus mechanism” and “decentralized” and other characteristics of the Control Engineering Copyright , will have an important impact on things, summarized as follows: △ reduce costs: District block chain “decentralized” character will reduce the high costs of operation and maintenance center of the framework; privacy △: all data blocks in the chain are transmitted encrypted, user data privacy and security will be more; △ safety device : identity rights management and multi-party consensus to help identify illegal nodes in a timely manner to prevent malicious access node and evil; △ trace to its source: the data written to the block as long as the chain would be difficult to tamper with, rely on chain structure can help build electronic evidence that traceable as evidence; △ inter-network collaboration: features distributed architecture and the body of the block chain of such things help break the existing shackles multiple information silos, at a low cost to build trust www .cechina.cn , and to promote lateral flow of collaborative information gateway. Things block chain to promote the development of the network in recent years, as one of the core areas of development communications industry networking, the focus is gradually to build the field, the rapid evolution of networking ecological direction was the ability to aggregate, the introduction of all kinds of new communications technology has become things industry an important means of fostering ecological, and block chain technology, networking and the organic integration of 5G which is already an indispensable part. 5G 5G network to enhance network coverage as the current domestic and foreign operators focus on building and competition for mobile communications network, theoretical transfer speeds of up to tens of gigabits per second, the industry is expected to 2There are more than 020 years about 500 million mobile devices and the Internet of Things will connect to 5G network. Communications operators can use the block chain technology to enhance the service capabilities of its 5G network. 5G network using higher frequencies, effective communication base station coverage is relatively small, relatively weak signal penetration, network coverage to meet the demand, the need to deploy large-scale indoor base stations and micro base stations, the huge cost of inputs the communication carrier great challenges. To solve this problem, some operators consider the use of technology to create a 5G block chain Alliance micro base station, ordinary individuals and businesses are encouraged to deploy their own 5G micro base station, and through alliances, access carrier network together to provide users with access 5G At the same time into the service, to enhance network coverage capabilities minimize network construction and maintenance costs. Construction and block chain technology convergence, China Unicom has launched in close cooperation with the municipal government of Guiyang, block chain technology will be applied to the Guiyang City, “a base, a laboratory, a network, a platform, twelve in 5G network among application “5G industrial system, one important direction of development is the construction of a networked environment 5G was the main idea is for the transportation of wisdom, wisdom, medical, smart city, smart security, intelligence and other campus conduct that contains the block chain technology things pilot applications, and gradually promote the culture of things ecological. Other operators are also active in these areas and pilot deployment. Enhance the capacity of the current network edge computing capacity of the vast majority of Things environment is still based on decentralized distributed network architecture, still under the center edge node of the core node constraints. Downsizing of the communication network, by enhancing the access network edge computing capacity and improve service capabilities has become a trend. Flattening the communication network, and “decentralized” block chain of a natural complementary characteristics. Using the block chain “to the center” mechanism can be placed at each edge node capability IOT core node, only the core node controlling the use of the core or make a backup, each edge node device service within their respective regions, and through more flexible models of collaboration and consensus related mechanisms for authentication, accounting and other control functions formerly undertaken by core nodes, to ensure safety, credible and stable operation of the network. At the same time, computing and decentralized management capabilities, can enhanceThings ability to network expansion, upgrade support network evolution. Communications operators can enhance independence and ability to service its edge node communication network and enhance its inter-network collaboration with other carrier’s communication network. Between the edge of the compute nodes of different communication carriers can cooperate with each other, work together to provide communication services to users of these communication carrier.
edge computing and network evolution
Network Authentication lifting capacity thereof is a unique digital identity code of the number of user equipment or things (including product) was concentrated true identity information, an inquiry is identified and certification of digital label, digital identity plays an important role as representatives of the IOT environment. The use of block chain technology, you can use encryption and security algorithms to protect digital identities, to build a more secure and convenient digital identity authentication system under the environment of things. Digital identity using the block chain technology, you can use encryption and security algorithms to protect digital identities, to build a more secure and convenient digital identity authentication system under the environment of things. Digital identity authentication and credit endorsement before the chain needs by certification bodies (eg, government, business, etc.), followed by the chain, block chain based on the authenticity of digital identity authentication system to protect digital identity information, and provide a credible Certification Services. Things Each device has its own address block chain, can be registered under a particular address, thus protecting their digital identities are not affected by other devices. To meet the rapid development of 5G and networking technology, operators face many more industrial partners, the need to strengthen mutual trust and cooperation in security through technical means. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) technology is an important means of building mutual trust and operators to optimize internal processes and security solutions platform of external collaboration. With the development of network and communication technology, the application of PKI system in the mobile communication network, networking, car networking scene more and more. But PKI created some new problems in terms of ease of use and interoperability, etc.. Block chain technology to the center, tamper-resistant, multi-maintenance features can help more transparent and credible PKI system, broad participation, and optimize processes. Things lifting device security capabilities based on factors such as cost and management aspects of a lot of things devices lack effective security mechanism, for example,The family cameras, smart lights, street lamps such as a monitor. These networked devices were easily hijacked. Things hijacked by malicious software devices are often willfully control, and the specific network service Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. To solve this problem, we need to find and disable hijacked things device connected to the communication network, and to cut off their network connections before they access a target server. Communications operators can upgrade things gateways and gateway connected by the Internet of Things block chain, joint monitoring, network activity to identify and deal with things device, protect and enhance network security. Enhance communication network operation and maintenance capabilities for communications operators, traditional telecom equipment operation and maintenance, is facing many problems, for example, equipment maintenance, inspection and other work will be labor intensive and time, while the operation and maintenance of data is also likely to face fraud, mistrust and other issues. The Internet of Things based, block chain technology, it can alleviate or solve these problems. Block chain using techniques to achieve reliable data, trusted, operation and maintenance data to ensure authenticity. Incorporated networking technology, information and communications equipment interconnection sensing device, e.g., automatically sensing technology can achieve automatic collection of data, the conventional apparatus for the automated inspection extended operation and maintenance, can greatly enhance the efficiency of operation and maintenance. Further, the device can be installed on-site temperature and humidity sensor or a camera, acquires various real-time operation and maintenance data, environmental data, etc., or the timing of the dialing test device, the use of detection equipment operating status detector. With things, block chain technology that can enhance the efficiency of daily operation and maintenance and inspection of telecommunications equipment, data and can achieve real and credible. Enhance the international roaming clearing capabilities in the future, along with the ever-expanding Internet connection space objects, global communications operators will most likely need things for the environment, easy to operate and establish operation and maintenance of international roaming services and communications-related billing system. Block chain technology provides support for the relevant needs and help operators to establish a low-cost, highly reliable, intelligent roaming and settlement systems, include authentication, roaming billing, fraud detection and monitoring fees and other service functions. You can be shared between systems using the block chain high reliability and tamper-resistant features, operators and their roaming partners a credible, mutual recognition of roaming agreements and financial settlement document file system, a full record of all roamingDepartment are on the chain, and can be traced back to be investigated, transparent security, enhance settlement efficiency, because the dispute is inconsistent brought before the elimination of handling complex problems. Connections to enhance the data management capabilities of Things era of things and objects, things and objects was the explosive growth, so that the size of the data carrier management continue to rise, the data management process-related information is indeed right, traceability, protection, etc. faced with new challenges. To address these challenges, communications operators can use technology for data storage block chain management, to solve the traditional centralized data storage mode, susceptible to attack tampering and other issues, but can also be used to block chain platform providing trading and transaction data indeed the right service. Things enhance the ability to block chain platform based on Internet of Things business platform of the current block chain, a variety of things service platform, supporting a wide range of things network and service needs. The traditional business of things usually the center of the platform. Without loss of generality, the traditional things service platform can be described by the following figure.
Traditional service platform IOT
Traditional things as internet service and connection service center which is connected networking applications and management, networking services, networking equipment, networking data. In the traditional business of things platforms, networking applications and the business of things can only access the Internet of Things devices and data through the Internet of Things Internet of Things business platform. According to the arrangements and coordination mechanisms of Things business platform, business platform of things it can be divided into three operating modes: centralized mode of operation, distributed work model and the “decentralized” type of operating modes: In the center of the mode of operation, material business networking platform to deploy a single location (for example, a data center) on the system side, from a single management platform vendors, device and things, things networking applications and provides business center services. In the distributed mode, things service platform can be deployed multiple locations (e.g., multiple data centers) in the system side, are also typically managed by a single platform providers, equipment and things, and things networking applications business provides a distributed service. In the “decentralized” mode of operation, networking business platform is built and maintained by a group of independent participants who may be unrelated, can be of mutual trust or not trust. In this mode of operation,Things applications, networking business, networking equipment may be part of things service platform, and jointly provide Internet of Things services. Further, in the “decentralized” mode of operation, the system is no longer consider participants side or terminal side. Different types of things service platform can be based on the same or different underlying communication infrastructure (e.g., a network, a cloud, a large data, security, management, billing, etc.).
things work platform business model
According to projections, by 2020 the number of global Internet of Things equipment will reach tens of billions of units. With the dramatic rise in the number of things in equipment, demand for services is increasing, traditional things service model is facing enormous challenges, mainly in the security risks of a sharp rise in infrastructure data center and maintenance input costs, and related things service platform and performance bottlenecks and other problems. To solve these problems, many companies or institutions began to try to design a variety of new service models of things, the use of technology to build the block chain “to the center” of the Internet of Things business platform has become one of the important patterns. Block chain using techniques build things service platform, a “decentralized” service platform (abbreviated things block chain, or Blockchain of Things, BoT). Things IOT support block chain entities (e.g., networking equipment, networking servers, networking gateway, a serving gateway, and the end-user equipment, etc.) cooperate with each other in the “decentralized” model. Things on one entity may deploy one or more chain blocks things node (node BoT), and “decentralized” applications (dApp). Things to BoT physically connected to the node through the “center” of the application, and further cooperate with each other things on the block chain.
In early 2017, China Unicom and ZTE and other units co-sponsored the establishment of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) Study Group 20 Internet of Things based business platform block chain of the “Internet of Things block chain based the “decentralized” service platform framework “(Y.IoT-BoT-fw) international standard project aims to research and develop the operational framework of relevant international standards things block chain service platform technology and so on.According to the characteristics of the business of things, things can be deployed on a service block chain things, may be deployed outside of Things block chain. Things block chain intelligence support contract. If the business of things can be presented and executed, and the business of things through the intelligent public contracts can also be deployed, so this kind of things can be in the form of a smart business contracts directly deployed on the block chain of things; for example, the Internet of Things equipment do identification, to do things online data processing services and other things. If the business of things more complicated, not by contract to render intelligent and execution, or the business of things can not be deployed publicly, so this kind of things can be deployed in operations outside the block chain of things, but can also be networked in the object block Agreement on the deployment of smart chain to provide ancillary services such as business guide, device authentication, data storage and so on. When the business of things in a smart way contracts are deployed on things block chain, networking equipment can be accessed via the corresponding business of things related to the implementation of intelligent search and contracts on the Internet of Things block chain. When deployed in the business of things outside the block chain of things, things device can block chain of things related to search and implementation of intelligent auxiliary contract to gain access to the business of things access permissions, and then with the corresponding direct the business of things interaction; Meanwhile, according to the needs of the business of things, things and services things device can interact with both the result data is stored in the block chain things. The data processing and network access device things, things device can be roughly divided into full function devices and limited capabilities things things device. Things full function device may be directly connected to the chain block things, and may be directly involved in the interaction and collaboration of things block chain. Things may be limited ability device indirectly connected to the chain block by IOT IOT gateway, and indirectly involved in the interaction and collaboration of things block chain. Things device at startup or status change things may register or update information block chain on the chain block things. Things devices can be deployed on Things block chain intelligence contract, or things equipment operators or managers can deploy smart contract on the block chain of things, for example, things device registration, update, authentication, access , intelligent data processing contract. Things business things by block chain,Check things device to be registered information, e.g., registration information, access information and the like. For the full-function device of things, they are an integral part of the block chain of things, things related to the business by performing intelligent networking devices to interact directly contract with such material. For things device capacity constraints, they indirectly via gateway IOT block chain things, this time, the business of things can interact with things device indirectly through the corresponding gateway things. Things business and things are smart contract devices to store and access data through the Internet of Things. Things block chain can set the data security and privacy protection policy, so that only the license agreement to obtain the equipment and things of things businesses can access and manipulate data IOT agreement; at the same time, things for unlicensed devices and the Internet of Things business, the block chain things by policy, which all (or part) of things may be stored encrypted data, without the right to decrypt and use encrypted data things. Things block chain block chain has a data management features, is conducive to the collection, storage and management of Things data. Things block chain as a “decentralized” service platform of things, it applies to ITU-T Y.4000 standard reference model defined things. Considering the “decentralized” feature and trust coordination mechanism Things block chain, and in the reference model of things need to add some corresponding capacity requirements.
block chain things reference model
Most of the new chain block things capacity requirements are focused on the application support services and things layer reference model, including access control, consensus management, encryption support, management data, the control node, contract management, peer (P2P) communications, computing and storage. Meanwhile, in the application layer and the device layer, it requires networking applications (services), networking equipment and capabilities thereof IOT gateway capable of providing services and applications through the support layer to communicate with each other and collaborate. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation of the block chain of things, things block chain also need to add some security and management capabilities, in order to protect the “decentralized” Things block chain node environment is safe, reliable and letter collaborate with each other. Cloud-based service use block chain and cloud computing platform block chain building block chain may cloud services (BaaS) platform for developers and business users with the ability to block chain services. Communications operators can cloud computing platform based on integration of big data, block chain technology to provide application developers to block chain based BaaS service development environment that allows application developers to quickly build their own on the elastic, open cloud platform IT infrastructure and block chain services. Use BaaS developers can greatly reduce the cost of block chain to achieve the underlying technology to simplify building block chain and operation and maintenance work CONTROL ENGINEERING China Copyright , focus on meeting the individual needs of industry users to develop professional or solutions. BaaS also provide security services capabilities for application developers, for example, has a configuration to prevent internal attacks, high levels of certification service system isolation, security service container, tamper-resistant hardware security module, highly auditable operations environment and so on. Meanwhile, the block chain is also committed to a cloud service block for chain industry users to provide basic technical capabilities, specifically include enterprise-level block chain infrastructure, end to end solutions, as well as safe, reliable and flexible block chain cloud services. Under the premise of high-performance user via block chain services, can achieve safe and reliable transaction docking, using visualization data management tools, effectively reducing the cost of business operations, improve operational efficiency.
Block Chaining cloud services can be networked with each object edge fusion computing infrastructure, the use of IOT edge computation nodes provide things block chain fusions and services to the user equipment things. Things edge of the same or a different communication carrier’s telecommunications carrier block chain may constitute a computing node (e.g., Union chain), the edges may be representative of networked computing node devices for storing data objects and participating in collaboration between the devices so that things can be accelerated collaboration efficiency. Block chain enabling networking industry application integration of new technologies will big data, networking, artificial intelligence and the block chain with each other to promote the development of the digital economy and the real economy, is the current direction of the mainstream of socio-economic development. Domestic and international mainstream Internet companies and telecommunications operators have to join the integration of technology research and development related applications, active distribution chain block application ecosystem. Support block chain things mass expansion device, it can be usedBuild efficient, secure distributed network of things, and the mass deployment of data-intensive applications running on the network device. Things block chain can provide trust mechanism, to ensure credibility, reliability and transparency of ownership records, transactions, while also providing users with privacy protection mechanism, so as to effectively solve the big things facing the development of data management , trust, security and privacy issues, to promote things more flexible technology, an advanced form of intelligent evolution. Use block chain technology to build the Internet of Things application platform, can be “decentralized” to be all kinds of things related to the effective connected devices, gateways, capacity of the system, application and service integration, promote their mutual cooperation, open up the physical and virtual worlds and reduce costs at the same time, greatly limits to meet the trust is established, the transaction accelerated, massive connectivity needs. Block chain in the industry to explore the applications of things began around 2015, typical application areas include smart cities, industrial Internet of Things payments, supply chain management, logistics, transportation, agriculture, energy, environmental protection and so on. “Things + block chain” with a wide range of application capabilities, for industries, can promote the wisdom of the city, the financial development of the insurance industry; for the public domain, can enhance the smart wallet, electronic applications such as performance and pay; for business, can enhance the service capabilities property management, large data transactions; for communications, can improve the roaming settlement, edge computing systems and other functions.
block chain applications panorama
block chain currently has some of the more mature application in the field of the Internet industry, supply chain management and other applications in other areas more than in the experimental validation phase. This white paper is to analyze intelligence from multiple areas of the city, the Internet industry, logistics, traceability security, intelligent transportation and so on. The current smart city smart city building, networking technology has been widely used, such as a common public transportation, sewer covers, urban street lighting, smart meter / meter / gas meter and other equipment, are collected by the sensor connection and monitoring and transmission of data, but there will be more personal, public facilities and equipment data will be collected automatically, and widely used. But these data in transmission and use, may be faced with information security, data tampering and other issues, and the block chainTechnology integration, will be able to effectively enhance the intellectual ability to protect the safety of city data. Block chain technology for cross-level, cross-functional smart city data interoperability trusted to provide a safe environment, technically allow the government access to the party and independent data access authorization to conduct data call recording, data leakage events Shihai able to locate the exact responsibilities, can greatly reduce the security risks of urban data used and shared wisdom. Internet industry set up efficient, low-cost Internet industry is the key to building intelligent manufacturing network infrastructure. In the traditional network model of the Internet industry, across all devices and all sectors of the supply chain need to be connected to a communication achieved through centralized network and communications agency, which greatly increases the network and operation and maintenance costs, and this scalability based networking mode, relatively low maintainability and stability. Block chain process based on hybrid P2P networking technologies and communication protocols between heterogeneous devices, the construction can be significantly reduced in the central data center and maintenance costs, while also computing and storage capacity and the like was dispersed throughout the intranet network, effectively prevent from a single node failure which led to the collapse of the entire network problems. Tamper-resistant properties of the block chain distributed books, and the Internet industry can effectively reduce any single node device after being brought malicious attacks and malicious manipulation and control information leakage risks. The use of block chain technology to build and manage the Internet industry, the timely control of the network in a variety of manufacturing equipment status and participation of interested parties state division of labor and improve the utilization and maintenance efficiency equipment, which can provide more accurate and efficient supply chain services. Things pay the rapid development of the Internet of Things also contributed to the innovative method of payment, future payment platform and will certainly have a combination of things and deeper, “Internet payment” is bound to be upgraded to “Things to pay.” Existing business model architecture and centralized system will be unable to support the exponential growth in data networking era of the matter. Meanwhile the industry, inconsistencies in the data structure of the data information of each device is not China Unicom, the data is malicious tampering, privacy, confidentiality, data terminals and so on, will further hinder the development of the Internet of Things payments. Customer privacy and data security are the two most important issues of the future, mass data processing payments between physical objects and accounts processing, low latency requirements of future technology requirements and other characteristicsSurgery must be distributed. Distributed storage block chain, distributed computing, content distribution technology is the inevitable choice for the exponential growth of data processing. Block chain with a traceable, tamper-proof, data protection, security control and other features Control Engineering Copyright , you can enhance the credit rating to pay. At present, the block chain in the field of networking payments were typical application is the use of block chain technology to provide a person existing networking industry machine or machine-to-machine of payment solutions, and accordingly established based on the block micro-payment system chain, achieve real-time access to the Internet of things equipment payments, the effective promotion of trade and the flow of things data. Supply chain management supply chain is a complex system composed of elements of logistics, information flow, capital flow of common components, the connector industry suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and users. The future, there is a huge number of things in the supply chain, how to effectively manage the supply chain, establishing data transparency, smooth communication and accountability of information transmission mechanism is one of the important issues to enhance the efficiency of the supply chain are facing. Block chain technology as suitable for large-scale production collaboration tools for supply chain management of things, its “decentralized” feature enables transparent data in the transaction between the parties, to ensure the integrity and smooth flow of information this ensures that all parties involved can find the process of supply chain systems running problems, to find a way to deal with the problem; there is not tampering with its data and time stamps can well be applied to address the participants in the supply chain system of the body disputes between, effective and accountable, the burden of proof; its traceability can help remove fake and shoddy products in question during the transfer process within the supply chain. Application of Logistics and logistics finance and logistics in the logistics chain block the financial sector, it is currently a hot research and application. Digital signature block decryption mechanism and processing chain, can fully guarantee the security and logistics information to send, the recipient’s privacy. Block chain intelligence contracts and financial services integration, simplify logistics processes, improve logistics efficiency. Based on Logistics Express block chain is a typical application of the block chain things. In the express delivery process, both parties need to complete the transfer process by the relevant private key signature, whether the goods receipt or delivery of a query can only block in the chain. Before the end user does not receive delivery confirmation, there will be related to the block chain fastThe delivery receipt records, this mechanism can effectively prevent signature forgery courier, cargo impersonator, false collar and other issues. At the same time, it protects your privacy block chain can be hidden income, real name sender information, so as to effectively protect the security of user information. Traceability can not tamper with the security of using the block chain, traceability and data integrity features such as the establishment of a timestamp goods traceability platform for food, medicine, art, collectibles, and other luxury goods, providing anti-counterfeiting traceability service. Typical applications are: △ commodity security traceability: the use of block chain traceability technology to build security open platform, by way alliance chain, to achieve online, authentication of retail goods at the line, with retroactive transfer transaction records, so more effectively protect the interests of consumers and brands to help consumers enhance the shopping experience. △ food traceability: By combining block chain technology and the Internet of Things, so that the whole food chain has license to be investigated, every aspect can be traced, in order to strengthen traceability and food safety Copyright Control Engineering All , to enhance the transparency of the food supply chain to ensure food safety. △ medicine traceability: traceability block chain services and “decentralized” capability can be applied in medicine trade, transport and traceability, etc., for establishing a forecast of demand for drugs, simplification of the procurement process, inventory, capacity rationalization, logistics efficient transport system of the pharmaceutical services industry to address the opaque information between upstream and downstream supply chain and asymmetric challenges. Intelligent Transportation block chain technology can play a role in many areas of intelligent transportation, for example, car license management, transportation fees, road management, mainly reflected in: △ Vehicle Certification Management: Using unchangeable characteristic data and block chain “to center “of the consensus mechanism, management and delivery vehicle certification services, and electronic license plate number can provide services. △ transportation charge management: using block chain of electronic tokens to pay traffic violation fines, road and bridge tolls, instant payment, save administrative and operational costs. △ road Management: block chain to record real-time location of the vehicle to determine the degree of traffic congestion in different regions of the “decentralized” service characteristics block chain platform provides a regional transport coordination diversion programs. Medical care and health care block chain combination, especially electronic processing of medical data, isOne of the important research focus of the current block chain applications. Effective sharing of medical data can improve the overall level of health care while reducing medical costs of patients. Medical data sharing is a sensitive topic, application development is the sore point of the medical industry and key challenges, mainly due to demand for personal privacy of sensitive patient information. Block chain provide potential solutions for sharing medical data to solve problems. Patient medical history records between different medical institutions can be uploaded to the block chain platform, different data providers can be an authorized user on the platform of data that allows unauthorized access on the channel. This will not only reduce operating costs but also solve the problem of trust. Block chain in the medical field is a typical application of chronic disease management. Medical regulatory agencies, medical institutions, third-party service providers and patients in this per capita to share sensitive information in a protected ecosystem, the intervention mechanism to coordinate the implementation of integrated disease slow, promote disease has been effectively controlled. Environmental protection and environmental protection industry generally use networking technology to establish the relevant monitoring system, automatic monitoring of key pollution sources, environmental quality monitoring and other functions, but there is a trust issue among the monitoring devices and environmental monitoring data. Enterprises in the absence of regulation, may direct changes in device status and data tampering. In addition, shared environmental data is an open problem. Block chain and integration of things, we can solve the end of the regulatory process in the presence of environmental monitoring, data validation low, single monitoring measures and other issues. Application block chain technology ensures that each environmental monitoring equipment trusted identity, tamper-proof data, which can not only ensure the privacy of companies and institutions, but also to achieve the necessary environmental data open sharing. Things block chain enables different manufacturers, protocols, types of equipment unified access, the establishment of landing the implementation of trusted trading environment environmental data resources, power and environmental protection policies. Block chain typical in environmental protection applications are mainly: △ Environmental Data Management: the possibility of the presence of the tampered data from contaminated environmental monitoring equipment to the network during block chains to provide a permanent record for each monitor, and by applying encryption technology to prevent tampering, improve reliability of data, strengthen the supervision of polluting industries. Application block chain technology can also digitize the entire process of tracking emissions to avoid the influence of human factors on the accuracy of emissions data. △ a source of a file: environmental protection departments block chain technologySurgery to build sewage companies basic information database, all the information on the record polluters and pollution equipment for centralized management, correspondence files for each source of pollution, and save the file on the block chain to prevent counterfeiting and tampering. Block chain while using the account authentication technology strengthening mechanism to prevent data theft account. Environmental Protection Tax embodiment △: Things block chains to provide a feasible technical solution for the implementation of environmental taxes. Block chain technology enables network-wide consensus and common data maintenance, and things can be combined with more accurate emissions data collected sewage companies. At present there is excess capacity of conventional energy, new energy efficiency and low returns and related infrastructure and hardware configuration is not complete and other issues such as energy energy industry. At the same time, the energy industry generally using the traditional labor movement dimensionally people, low efficiency, high cost, there are also security risks. Additionally, there is behind the energy metering device monitoring, data collection accuracy is low, information silos and other problems also affect the development of the energy industry. The use of block chain technology can solve this problem to some extent, typical applications include: △ Distributed Energy Management: Energy Management distributed architecture with a distributed architecture block chain with a high degree of consistency; the block chain technology can be applied to the grid service system, microgrid operation and management, distributed generation systems as well as wholesale energy markets. Meanwhile, the block chain fusion applications and networking technology can provide a viable route for the settlement of renewable energy generation, and can effectively improve data reliability. In addition, the use of block chain technology can also build an automated real-time distributed energy trading platform, real-time energy monitoring, energy metering, energy usage tracking and many other features. △ new energy vehicles Management: Things to block chain fusion technology can enhance the management capacity of new energy vehicles, including: new energy vehicles, lease management, intelligent charging post operating and charging station construction. But also can promote electric vehicles suppliers, charging pile data sharing between suppliers, transport operating companies, merchants and city names. △ Energy Trading: The block chain technology and intelligence contracts, can provide energy trading more convenient way to pay and trust mechanism, improve transaction efficiency and reduce default rates, protect the security of transaction data, improve cash flow rate of the energy industry. For example, for the wholesale energy trading, sale of electricity residents, residents use public power trading settlement scenarios, things can be used areaSettlement block chain technology to improve transaction efficiency, reduce manual errors. Agricultural domestic agricultural resources are relatively scattered and isolated, resulting in the technology and financial services and other resources difficult to enter the field of agriculture. Meanwhile, the chemical pollution of agricultural land and agricultural products flooding the industry chain is weak credit system and other issues make it difficult for consumers access to safe and high quality food. Things integration with traditional agriculture, such problems can be solved to some extent, but the lack of market operators and the closed-loop business model body, the actual role played by still relatively limited. Root of these problems is the lack of effective credit guarantee mechanism in the field of agriculture. Things block chain can effectively solve the current pain points agriculture and agricultural consumption: on the one hand, relying on traditional agriculture to enhance the efficiency of things, connecting isolated industrial chain links, create incremental value; on the other hand, relying on technology to connect each block chain digital elements of agricultural resources, the establishment of full credit monitoring system, causing areas of agricultural production and food consumption revolutionary upgrade. Typical applications are: △ traceability of agricultural products: agricultural producer and consumer of distance, the consumer information on producers to use pesticides, fertilizers and transportation, processing additives used no way of knowing, resulting in a consumer product trust reduced. Agricultural products traceability system block chain technology-based, all data can be recorded on the block chain books, agricultural products quality and full traceability trade body, as well as for the quality, utility and other tracking services, making information more transparent, to ensure the safety of agricultural products, enhance the brand value of high-quality agricultural products, fight against counterfeit goods, and to protect agricultural quality, fair price and effectiveness, enhance the level of agricultural R & D and the use of quality and efficiency. △ Agricultural Credit: The agriculture business entities applying for loans, credit needs to provide the appropriate information, the integrity of the data difficult to guarantee the accuracy of the information, resulting in difficulty of agriculture-related credit approval problems. Obtain data and documents stored on the device via the Internet of Things block chain, relying on intelligence contracts and consensus mechanisms for automatic synchronization and recording, increase the difficulty of tampering of information, reduce the cost of access to information. It provides for the credit institutions through the transfer of the corresponding data block chain of credit proof can be established multi-party system technology trust loan credit for agriculture, supply chain, banking, technology and services companies and other financial institutions to improve agricultureIt supports efforts to simplify loan assessment and business processes, reduce farmer loan application difficult. △ agricultural insurance: Internet of Things data plays an important role in support of loans and other claims assessment scene, and can improve the reliability of data after binding block chain, to simplify agricultural insurance application and claims process. In addition to the intelligent application of technology to the agricultural sector of insurance contracts, it can be detected in the agricultural disasters, start the payment process automation, improve payment efficiency. Telematics Telematics (including in-vehicle network, inter-vehicle car mobile networks and the Internet) is an important application field of the Internet of Things. According to incomplete statistics, China vehicle population has more than 300 million vehicles, which would make China the world will be the main vehicle networking potential market. Our car networking continued to be challenging in many aspects of data security and sustainable development in the development process. Block chain technology can enhance the ability to promote the car networking data management, security and efficiency aspects, including: △ car networking Big Data management: With more and more vehicle access network, networking in the car driving to collect habits and behavior patterns of data will become the geometric increase. Block chain technology is a potential solution to deal effectively with these huge data problems. △ vehicle safety and efficiency of networking: Block chain technology can be used to solve security and identity car networking certification issues related technologies can be put through less cost to build a bridge, the block between nodes networked car chain of “decentralized” consensus mechanism and the contracts intelligent technologies can effectively enhance the privacy and convenience of the security vehicle networking systems. Xiaobian that block chain of things and these two technologies can be described as the favorite in today’s technology sector, with the development of the Internet of Things, deploy a large number of traditional data center infrastructure (storage, computing, networking) will not be available in the cloud avoid deployed on the edge and terminal equipment, this is a direct consequence of the security of data under severe challenge. The biggest problem is not the Internet of Things landing scene. So tamper-proof block chain provided, distributed record-keeping mechanism, making it highly suitable for solving the security problems of things, and things to block the chain offers a number of scenes landing. Therefore, the block chain of things and combine these two trends can be said to be “a natural fit.”